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首頁 » 壬基苯酚環境荷爾蒙對環境生態之影響

壬基苯酚環境荷爾蒙對環境生態之影響

壬基苯酚環境荷爾蒙對環境生態之影響 

1、前言

  人類為了清洗衣物,去除油污,保持環境整潔,先民早年用了許多天然清潔劑,其中最負盛 名者當推「茶粕」,一種利用茶籽擠搾茶油殘留下來的副產品茶籽渣,但茶粕的清洗力不是很好,且使用不甚方便;因此肥皂傳入之後,茶粕為肥皂所取代。肥皂是利用乳化及肥皂 泡沫之吸附作用以去污;只是肥皂也有缺點,當肥皂用於硬水洗滌,會大量消耗,且用肥皂又洗又搓,亦頗費人力。所以當德國人首先開發之合成洗潔劑ABS引進之後,風靡一時,號稱 「非肥皂」,其後又有「汰漬」上市,用量少,且浸泡後,立即可去污,非常方便,大家競相採用。其後,發現含有ABS洗潔劑的洗滌水,排放到河川之後,難以被微生物所分解,泡沫在 水體內持久不消,嚴重影響生態環境,稱之『硬性洗衣粉』。接著美國研究開發直鏈式之『軟性洗衣粉』LAS洗潔劑,雖去污力稍遜,但易於被分解。迨1975年又在洗潔劑中添加磷酸鹽以增加洗劑之緩衝效果。不幸,磷酸鹽排入水體會造成水體優養化,藻類大量繁殖,水 體發臭,甚至於孳生毒藻,洗潔劑再次引起環境污染問題。另有於洗潔劑中添加某些種酵素,藉生化反應以去污者;此後市面上洗潔劑的開發,五花八門,琳瑯滿目,人類為了環境清 潔使用了許多清潔劑,但這些清潔劑於使用之後排放,卻常衍生許多環境污染問題,始所未料。 

  現行市售之化學合成清潔劑,依其去污原理,可概分為陽離子界面活性劑、陰離子界面活 性劑、兩性界面活性劑、非離子界面活性劑等種類;其中以陰離子界面活性劑(70 ﹪)及非 離子界面活性劑(27.4 ﹪)最大宗。而壬基酚聚乙氧基醇類佔非離子界面活性劑市場的八成,為工業洗滌及去除油污之主要成份,廣用於清洗工業及乳化工業。非離子界面活性劑使用後 估計約有35%以上排放於水體環境中。過去咸認其安全無虞,但其代謝衍生產物-壬基苯酚在水 環境中不易被分解,且其化學結構與動物及人類之雌性荷爾蒙酷似(圖一),具微弱的環境荷 爾蒙效應,一旦進入雄性動物體內,即會干擾內分泌之正常生理作用。 


2、壬基苯酚聚乙氧基醇非離子界面活性劑對魚類生態環境之影響 

  烷基酚聚乙氧基醇類為使用最廣之非離子界面活性劑,包括辛基苯酚類、壬基苯酚類 、癸基苯酚類三種,其中有80%以上之產品為壬基苯酚聚乙氧基醇(NPEO),其次為辛基 苯酚類。該等化學物質分子構造中的苯酚烴基(R)部分為親脂性,後面的聚乙氧基醇 長鏈(EOs)為親水性。當工業洗劑或乳化劑使用後,多是經由處理過或未經處理之廢水流入自然水體環境;據Loo(1998)之報告,NPEO在厭氧環境中經厭氧微生物脫乙氧基作用,切斷其親水性的聚乙氧基醇水溶性之EOs長鏈,而形成NP1EC 和NP2EC,最後都分解成親脂 性難溶於水之壬基苯酚(Nonylphenol,NP),在水環境中不易被分解。在河川水體首先受到壬基苯酚環境荷爾蒙衝擊者為暴露於NP之魚貝類,Jobling(1998)曾在英國報導河川裡的鯉魚(Rutilus rutilus)有中性魚(intersex)之現象。次年Van Aerle亦發現鰷魚(Gobio gobio) 也有相同之現象。


  Fairchild(1999) 在探討加拿大鮭魚(Salmo salar)頻臨絕種的原因時,更將之歸咎於可 能在1973-1990年間為了防治森林害蟲,針對16條河流域,噴灑含有NPEO乳化劑之農藥, 造成其分解物NP干擾魚群內分泌所致。Shioda(2000)將雄青鰹(Oryzias latipes)暴露於NP 二週後與雌魚配對,發現魚卵孵化率大為減低。 

據Ren(1996)之報告,幼魚不論雌雄均具有卵黃前質(vitellogenin,Vtg)之前驅物質mRNA ,一旦暴露於雌性激素(EE2)4小時後,魚體即產生Vtg,而mRNA開始消失;NP亦具有 同樣的生理效應。

  Flouriot(1995)曾證實NP可以取代EE2,固著於肝臟激素受體(estrogen receptor,ER) 導致Vtg之累積。Yadetie(1999)以NP直接模擬鮭魚肝臟之ES,與ER結合,魚體分泌出放射狀蛋白層(zona radiata protein,Zrp)以及Vtg。Arukwe(2000)將鮭魚以NP 5mg/kg之劑量注射 2週後,其原生質明顯產生Zrp與Vtg,且Zrp比Vtg更敏銳。Allner(1999)報告幼鱒魚(Oncorhynchus mykiss)以NP 40mg/條/天餵食,暴露3週後,血清中明顯的檢出Vtg增加。 

  Islinger(1999)以鱒魚肝膽囊細胞培養法檢定NP之生理效應,甚為微弱,約為天然雌性激 素EE2之1/2000。 Christiansen (1998)以NP處理雄鰻魚(Zoarces viviparus)25天後,發現雄性 生殖腺細小或缺如,且卵黃前質的合成大為增加。 進行睪丸之組織學切片檢查,發現在 精母細胞活化期(active spermatogenesis) 暴露之個體,精原細胞囊(spermatogenic cysts) 產生精液之小葉(seminiferous lobules)退化;而在精母細胞生成後期暴露之個體,生精小葉上的細精管支持細胞(Sertoli cells)萎縮成鱗片狀。在老鼠此細精管支持細胞為 -glutamyl transpeptidase (-GTP)酵素之製造者,暴露於NP之雄鼠,其-GTP酵素之活化因此 大為減低。英國將壬基苯酚對魚類的無顯著影響濃度(No observation effect concentration,NOEC) 訂為10 μg/L,日本則訂為6.08 μg/L,並取其1/10,0.608μg/L為預估無顯著影響濃度(PNEC)。 雄魚在水中壬基苯酚濃度23.5μg/L 時會出現二次性徵之雌化,在11.6μg/L 時出現精巢卵。 Loomis(2000)亦以亞特蘭大蛙(Micropogonias undulatus)進行NP暴露試驗,解剖雄蛙精巢組織精子形成期之碎片,發現親生殖腺素之刺激(gonadotropin-stimulated)降低,睪丸硬甾酮 (11-ketotestosterone, 11-KT)之生產減少。

  為了探討NP在魚體內之代謝,Coldham(1998)曾將鱒魚苗暴露於NP中48小時 後,檢測NP 在魚體內各部位之濃度:膽汁>排泄物>肝>腎>腦>鰓>心>肌肉>皮。NP主要在膽囊 內與尿甘酸化合物(glucuronide)結合而代謝,只有1.7%>皮。NP主要在膽囊內與尿甘酸 化合物(glucuronide)結合而代謝,只有1.7% 殘留在肝臟。Arukwe(2000)亦證實NP在魚體內 為膽汁之尿甘酸化合物所迅速代謝,在肌肉之半衰期為24-48小時;彼推測NP大概不至於在 魚肉內產生生物累積、生物轉移及生物濃縮現象。但Snyder等(2001)卻報告NP在 Pimephales promelas 魚體內之生物濃縮係數(Bioconcentration factors,BCFs)245-380倍,魚肉 之平均濃度達184 ng/g wet wt。

  Burkhardt-Holm(2000)以鱒魚暴露於10μg/L之NP中10天,發現其整個表皮黏膜結構引起不 規則黏液狀顆粒,且伴隨著細胞呈一塊塊分離,細胞質形成空泡,細胞核嚴重畸形。 Stoffel(2000)進一步以電子顯微鏡觀察暴露於10μg/L NP中之鱒魚,亦發現鱒魚魚鰓上表皮細 胞嚴重變形,多數呈氯化細胞(chloride cell),並著生微細絨毛。

  日本環境省於2001年8月正式發表壬基苯酚會使雄魚變性之實驗結果,並決定修改 現行之「化學物質審查、製造管制法」,以便將對魚類等生態環境有影響之物質納入管制。同時日本環境省亦宣佈將於今年12月15-17日在Tsukuba國際會議中心舉行「第四屆國際內分 泌干擾物質研討會」,研討快速篩檢方法、基因毒理、野生生物效應、健康效應等。此外,日本環境省將於2002年編列65億預算,作為改善環境荷爾蒙及地球溫暖化對策事業等之用途。 


3、壬基苯酚對哺乳動物之影響 

  NP對哺乳動物之影響,據Lee(1998)之報告,幼鼠在出生的前13天,母鼠給 予20.8 mg/kg/day之NP劑量15天,然後停用並施予NP解毒劑,結果雄幼鼠出生長大成熟 後對雌鼠之受孕率仍大為降低;NP處理過的老鼠,其睪丸、副睪、精囊、攝護腺均減小,且隱睪症(cryptorchidism)頻率增加。彼又於次年報告稱哺乳期之雄幼鼠暴露於NP一 個月後,20-30%之鼠隻精小管缺少分化,精子數目減少,精子游動之比率及睪丸蛋白酵素之調節功能降低。Chapin(1999)以30-100、100-350 mg/kg/day之NP劑量餵飼老鼠,其子二代之精子 密度分別減少8%、13%。另Odum(1999)以40mg/kg/day處理剛成熟之成鼠,發現老鼠乳腺增生 並結成小葉狀。Ren(1997)以乳癌細胞暴露NP二小時後,即可誘發其三葉形縮胺酸 (trefoil peptide)pS2 mRNA、MUC1 mRNA及激素受體基因(ER gene)。Blom(1998)以人體乳 癌細胞培養篩選環境荷爾蒙化學物質時,檢定NP之細胞增殖最低臨界濃度為1μM。 另Skakkebaek(1998)報告稱NP可以導致睪丸未降(undescended testis)、尿道下裂(hypospadias) ,甚至於引起睪丸癌(carcinoma in situ testis,CIS),對男性生殖健康造成嚴重威脅。 此外,Paganetto(2000)報告NP會降低人體攝護腺內retinoic acid 對類酯醇受體 (steroid receptors)之結合。Masuyama(2000)解釋其作用機制,一種類酯醇X受體 (Pregnane X receptor PXR)在類固醇荷爾蒙代謝上佔重要角色;NP可以取代類固 醇荷爾蒙,藉由PXR影響內分泌功能。


4、壬基苯酚對人類可能之暴露途徑

  NP如何進入人體?據Charuk(1998)之報告,NPEO廣用 為界面活性劑,其分解產物NP可能經由飲食、接觸或注射而為人體所吸收。Ruthann(1998)在 污水處理場下游之地下水中檢出NP之濃度為30μg/L,飲用井水有高達32.9μg/L者,彼懷疑不完整的污水下水道系統可能為地下水NPEOs污染主要之來源。丹麥Copenhagen's大學教學醫院(2000)在一項環境研究計畫中報告稱,非離子介面活性劑NPEO分解後之代謝衍生物,與人類的生殖力有直接關係。

  另Monteiro-Riviere(2000)以1%之NPEO 、NP進行人、豬、鼠之皮膚角質層 接觸穿透試驗8小時 ,證實極少由皮膚吸收。但由於其強力的去油脂效果,容易傷害油脂腺,使頭髮、頭皮、皮 膚粗糙乾裂,因此市售洗髮精、沐浴乳都不添加非離子介面活性劑,而改以由植物煉製成之天然椰子界面活性劑或其他物質取代。

  Minami(2000)以含NPEO之清潔劑進行兔子之陰道內殺精蟲處理,結果卻發現約有相當於靜脈注射量66%之NPEO被吸收,尿中並可檢出微量(被吸收劑量的0.22%)的NP。因此, 結論NPEO可能經由皮膚黏膜組織滲透侵進身體。又Soto(1991)發現有機溶劑可從離心機之 塑膠管溶析釋出NP,並據以推論人類廣泛的使用聚苯乙烯保麗龍,亦可能增加NP暴露之風險。 因此,聚苯乙烯保麗龍免洗 餐具之使用,務必格外審慎。至於NP在生物體內之代謝, Thibaut(1998)曾以鱒魚膽汁進行NP 之代謝研究,發現NP烴鍵上之omega及omega-1會被羥基化而形成9-hydroxynonylphenol及8-hydroxynonylphenol ,進而氧化為酸類。 而Charuk(1998)則報告,NPEO為腎臟一種分泌物P-glycoprotein(Mdr1p)之作用介質, Mdr1p可助NPEO排出體外。日本環境省(2001)亦聲稱NP對人體尚無明確影響。 

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作者:環境檢驗所 副所長 王正雄